Tagged with "history"
A Look at the History of Medicare
Category: General News
Tags: history medicare lyndon johnson healh insurance

Medicare was introduced in 1965 under the presidential leadership of Lyndon Johnson. It was quite obvious the older generation needed help when it came to health insurance, so Congress put through Medicare to provide health insurance to those 65 years of age and older, regardless of their situation. This wasnít the first time the idea had come to light, as it was first thought of more than 100 years ago.

National Health Insurance Goes Back to 1912

It was President Teddy Roosevelt who had a plan in place to provide health insurance to the public, and it was one of the reasons why he was elected. However, it took more than 30 years for the bill to be considered and it was under President Harry Truman in 1945 when it was eventually declined - the government didnít think it was a viable solution to the publicís health problems. Unfortunately, it took another 20 years for the bill to pass and even John F. Kennedy couldnít bring the bill into play.

John F. Kennedy Pushed for the Bill

John F. Kennedy also wanted to push for the health insurance bill, but he, too, was unsuccessful. It wasnít until 1965 when President Lyndon Johnson signed off on the bill that it eventually became a reality. According to public research, more than 50% of Americans over the age of 65 were without health insurance until Medicare came into play. If youíre studying an MHA degree online Ė learning about the history of Medicare and its benefits could play a crucial role in shaping your health administration career in the future. Many students use online masters in health administration programs via Maryville University to help secure their Online MHA Degree, but only a few students know how Medicare was formed.

Medicare Now Serves More Than 55 Million Americans

Medicare is now relied upon by millions of Americans Ė and itís now one of the bills that have proven to be the most successful. On Medicareís 50th anniversary, statistics showed more than 55 million Americans have had help with their health issues through a Medicare program. In 2013 alone, benefits of more than $580 billion were paid out, which contributed to 14% of the governmentís federal budget. Itís a bill that the likes of the previous presidents would be proud of Ė especially the ones like President Teddy Roosevelt who first brought the bill in-house.

While Medicare is providing insurance cover to billions of citizens of the United States, it still does need some changes to help cover other Americans in different age brackets. Most people are automatically covered by Medicare as soon as they reach 65, so some drastic changes could eventually come into play in terms of lowering the age. Will Medicare continue to become a huge success in the future? Or wonít the necessary changes be made to help improve health insurance packages for everyone? Some changes are currently in the pipeline, but itís not certain what the future of Medicare holds. †††††

The History of Healthcare Reform in the United States Tags: healthcare history reform united states law

Healthcare is a hot topic, especially now that Trump has been elected president and heís stated that he wants to make some big changes to the way people get their health insurance. But in order to understand current health law and policy, you need to look at what happened in the past. Below is a short summary of the history of healthcare reform in the United States.

If you think that you would like to make a change to healthcare and peopleís ability to access it, continue reading to learn more, and consider getting your masters in health law to start work in the field.

President Truman

President Truman was the first president to attempt to reform healthcare during the post-war era of the US. President Roosevelt, who was Trumanís predecessor, didnít really address accessibility to healthcare, so Truman proposed a new idea that would provide universal health coverage. It would have been administered by, and also paid for by, the National Health Insurance Board. Opponents to this idea included the American Medical Association, which didnít want socialized medicine to be in place. The bill didnít make it through Congress, but Truman tried again in 1948. However, the Korean War prevented him from passing any changes.

President Kennedy

President Kennedyís administration was in support of the King-Anderson bill, which stated that health insurance would be provided only to individuals who were 65 years of age and older, and it would come as part of the benefits package received through Social Security. This ultimately set the foundation for what would become Medicare, but the bill itself was opposed by the American Medical Association and was eventually defeated. †

President Johnson

President Johnson wanted extensive reforms as part of his Great Society plan. Even though he was opposed by the American Medical Association, he was able to get legislation passed that would establish both Medicare and Medicaid.

President Carter

President Jimmy Carter was serious about getting universal health coverage implemented so that everyone in the country would benefit. However, because of various economic problems, including a recession, his ideas never got much attention, and there wasnít much support for them either.

President Reagan

President Reagan wanted to curb excessive borrowing and spending by the government, so there werenít going to be any government administered healthcare programs. Instead, new laws were implemented that were focused upon reducing spending on healthcare while boosting efficiency. He changed Medicare reimbursement methods and implemented anti-fraud protocols. He also ended up expanding Medicare benefits through the Medicare Catastrophic Coverage Act of 1988.

President George H.W. Bush to the Present

Under President Bush, the Medicare Catastrophic Coverage Act of 1988 was repealed because of widespread disappointment in it. He wanted to instead reduce federal spending related to healthcare, as well as reduce abuse and fraud within Medicaid and Medicare. †

President Clinton and President George W. Bush were unable to make any big changes to healthcare law, but during President Obamaís term, the Affordable Care Act, which brought many changes into effect, was passed.

Today, with Donald Trump getting ready to take office as the next president, everyone is wondering what new changes will come for those who need healthcare in America.

History of Hemp Tags: library of congress history of hemp


†††††Although some authors contend that hemp originated in central Asia, most now agree that China was the original home of hemp (Dewey, 1913). Because the greatest diversity of hemp germplasm is found there, Vavilov placed the center of origin of hemp in China (Vavilov, 1992).

Cultivation and use of hemp for fiber predates written history. Chinese writings from the Sung dynasty (about 500 A.D.) state that the emperor Shen Nung first taught the people of China to cultivate hemp and make cloth around 2,800 B.C. Later Chinese texts indicate that hemp stalks were also used for fuel and the seeds for food and oil, but there are no early records of hemp production for drug use in China. According to Herodotus (about 450 B.C.) hemp fiber was used by the Thracians and Scythians beyond the Caspian Sea and was probably introduced to Europe during the westward Scythian migration around 1500 B.C. Hemp remained virtually unknown to the Greeks and Romans, however, until the beginning of the Christian era (Dewey, 1913). The earliest written record of hemp use in Europe states that "Heiro II, King of Syracuse (270 B.C.), bought the hemp used for the cordage of his vessels in Gaul" (De Candolle, 1886). By the sixteenth century hemp was widely distributed in Europe where it was cultivated for fiber and the seeds were cooked with barley or other grains and eaten. In 1537 Discorides named the plant Cannabis sativa and wrote of its use for cordage as well as its medicinal properties (Dewey, 1913).

As early as 1545 hemp was brought to the Western Hemisphere by the Spaniards who began cultivation in Chile (Husbands, 1909). Hemp was introduced to the United States in 1645 by the Puritans in New England as a fiber source for household spinning and weaving, but never became as important as flax in the region. Cultivation spread to Virginia and was well established in Pennsylvania before the American Revolution (Dewey, 1913). Hemp was brought to Kentucky in 1775 by settlers from Virginia and grew so well that a commercial cordage industry developed in Kentucky that lasted long after hemp cultivation was abandoned in the eastern states (Humphrey, 1919). The hemp industry flourished in Kentucky, Missouri, and Illinois between 1840 and 1860 due to strong demand for sailcloth and cordage, however, large imports of cheaper jute and abaca eventually displaced most domestic hemp (Dodge, 1897; Dempsey, 1975). With development of the cotton gin, the hemp industry quickly declined as cotton production rapidly increased in the South. Growth of the cotton industry did provide demand for hemp cordage and bagging to package cotton bales until iron ties were introduced in about 1865 (Dewey, 1913; Humphrey, 1919). During the late 1800ís and early 1900ís hemp production was tried in many other states, but from the end of the Civil War until 1912 virtually all hemp in the United States was produced in Kentucky (Wright, 1918). Domestic hemp production revived slightly in response to World War I, and fiber hemp was grown in several states including Kentucky, Wisconsin, California, North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, Indiana, Illinois, Ohio, Michigan, Kansas, and Iowa (Wright, 1918; Dempsey, 1975).

There are no records that hemp was ever a commercial crop in Oregon, however, experimental crops were attempted in the 1890ís (French, 1898) and in the 1930ís. USDA researchers B.B. Robinson and E.G. Nelson planted many hemp trials in Oregon during the 1930ís as part of an ongoing fiber crop research project. This included trials with high yielding varieties developed by the USDA such as Kymington, Chinamington, and Chington (Robinson, 1934; Robinson, 1935b; Robinson, 1936). In addition, a hemp breeding and selection program was established in Corvallis, Oregon to develop and test advanced lines. Results from the non-irrigated production trials were generally very poor with many crop failures due to lack of rainfall. Because of unsatisfactory crop performance and climatic conditions, the USDA hemp project based in Oregon and all seed produced were transferred to Madison, Wisconsin in 1937 (Nelson, 1937).

In 1937 the U.S. government passed the Marijuana Tax Act which placed all Cannabis culture under control of U.S. Treasury Department regulations. This act required the registration and licensing of all hemp growers with the federal government in an effort to restrict production of psychoactive Cannabis varieties in the United States. Additional legislation established penalties for production, sale, and possession of marijuana and hashish (Dempsey, 1975). Although many other countries also prohibited Cannabis cultivation, hemp production was not restricted in much of Asia, South America, eastern Europe, and in several countries in western Europe.

When World War II interrupted supplies of jute and abaca to the United States from the tropics, an emergency program was undertaken to quickly develop hemp as a domestically produced substitute. A special division of the USDA Commodity Credit Corporation contracted production of hemp planting seed and fiber. War Hemp Industries, Inc. constructed a number of hemp fiber processing mills in the midwest. Domestic hemp production peaked during 1943 and 1944 and declined rapidly after the war as legal restrictions on production were increased and supplies of inexpensive tropical fibers were reestablished. A small hemp fiber industry continued in Wisconsin, however, until 1958. Fiber hemp production in the United States has been negligible since that time (Ash, 1948; Dempsey, 1975)." Excerpted from "Feasibility of Industrial Hemp Production in the United States Pacific Northwest," SB 681, May 1998, Daryl T. Ehrensing. <http://extension.oregonstate.edu/catalog/html/sb/sb681/

See also:

By David P. West, Ph.D*.
(Author's note: This essay is a condensation of Fiber Wars with greater emphasis on practical farming. It was never finished and languished as a draft to the present. Some images are still missing. As opportunity allows, it will be given further attention.) < http://www.gametec.com/hemp/IndHmpFrmg.htm

U.S.D.A. Bulltein #1935, Brittain B. Robinson, 1943, revised 1952, "Hemp." Shows farmers how to plant, grow, harvest, and ret hemp. Given to American farmers during World War II because our foreign sources of cordage fibers were cut off by the Japanese. Re-issued in 1952 during the Korean War when it was feared that our sources of foreign fibers might be cut off by the Communist Chinese.

Proceedings--Soil Science Society of America, Black, C.A., Vessel. A.J., 1944, "The Response of hemp to fertilizers in Iowa." pp.179-184. Shows crop yields in Iowa during the governments emergency program to grow hemp during World War II. One test plot had a yield of 21.2 tons per acre. Nitrogen added at a rate of 100 pounds per acre increased hemp yields by 2.47 tons. Nitrogen also increased the number of female plants.

United States. General Accounting Office. Report on audit of Commodity Credit Corporation and its affiliate, War Hemp Industries, inc. Washington, U. S. Govt. Print. Off. [n.d.] v.

Quincy, Edmund. A treatise of hemp-husbandry; being a collection of approved instructions, as to the choice and preparation of the soils, most proper for the growth of that useful and valuable material, and also as to the experience of several countries wherein it has been produced, both in Europe and America ... By Edmund Quincy ... Boston, Printed by Green & Russell, by order of the hon. House of Representitatives, 1765. 32 p., 1 l. plan. SB255.Q7

Marcandier. An abstract of the most useful parts of a late treatise on hemp, translated from the French of M. Marcandier ... Together with some observations upon the prospect of singular advantage which may be derived to Great-Britain and her colonies from their early adopting the method prescribed. To which is added, some account of the use of the horse-chestnut; and a plan of the Pennsylvania hemp brake. Boston, Printed and sold by Edes & Gill, in Queen-street, 1766. 2 p. l., 30 p., 1 l. plan.

Farmer. An essay on the culture and management of hemp: more particularly for the purpose of making coarse linens. by a farner. Annapolis: Printed by Anne Catharine Green and Son, 1775. 52 p.
SB255.F37 1775

Wissett, Robert. A treatise on hemp, including a comprehensive account of the best modes of cultivation and preparation as practised in Europe, Asia, and America; with observations on the sunn plant of India, which may be introduced as a substitute for many of the purposes to which hemp is now exclusively applied. By Robert Wissett ... With an appendix, on the most effectual means of producing a sufficiency of English grown hemp, by the Right Hon. Lord Somerville. London, J. Harding, 1808. 1 p. l., xvi, 296 p. 5 pl. (incl. front.) SB255.W8

A manual of flax culture and manufacture. Rochester, N.Y., D. D. T. Moore, 1863. iv, [5]-48 p. illus.

United States. Dept. of Agriculture. Report of the Flax and hemp commission. [Washington, 1865] 96 p. illus. TS1705.U58

Dodge, Charles Richards. A report on flax, hemp, ramie and jute, with considerations upon flax and hemp culture in Europe, a report of the ramie machine trials of 1889 in Paris, and present status of fiber industries in the United States. Washington, Govt. print. off., 1890. 104 p. illus.

Allen, James Lane. The reign of law; a tale of the Kentucky hemp fields, By James Lane Allen ... with illustrations by Harry Fenn and J. C. Earl. New York, The Macmillan company; London, Macmillan & co., ltd., 1900. vii, 385 p. illus. PZ3.A427R

Boyce, Sidney Smith. [from old catalog]. Hemp (Cannabis sativa) a practical treatise on the culture of hemp for seed and fiber. New York, Orange Judd company, 1900. x, 112 p. incl. front., illus.

Conter, Frank E. [from old catalog]. The Cultivation of sisal in Hawaii. Honolulu, Hawaiian gazette company, 1903. 31 p. incl. 5 pl. illus. S399.E8 no. 4

Carter, H. R. (Herbert R.) Modern flax, hemp and jute spinning and twisting; a practical handbook for the use of flax, hemp, and jute spinners, thread, twine, and rope makers, by Herbert R. Carter. With ninety-two illustrations. London, Scott Greenwood & Son; New York, D. Van Nostrand, 1907. xiii, 206 p. illus. TS1705.C3

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Ways and Means. Tariff hearings before the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of representatives ... 1908-1909. Schedule J. Flax, hemp, and jute, and manufactures of. Washington, Govt. print. off., 1909. v, 4637-4976, xvii p. KF27.W3 1908a

Dewey, Lyster Hoxie. The cultivation of hemp in the United States. Washington, Govt. print. off., 1910. 7 p. illus. SB19.A33 no. 57

Dewey, Lyster Hoxie. [from old catalog], and Jason., [from old catalog] Merrill joint author.. Hemp hurds as paper-making material. Washington, Govt. print. off., 1916. 26 p. illus. TS1109.D5

United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Agriculture and Forestry. Subcommittee to Investigate the Introduction of Sisal and Manila Hemp and the Production of Binding Twine. Importation of sisal and manila hemp. Hearings before the subcommittee of the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, United States Senate, Sixty-fourth Congress, first session, on S. res. 94, a resolution authorizing and instructing the Committee on agriculture and forestry of the Senate to investigate what companies and corporations are engaged in the imporatation of sisal and manila hemp, etc. [Feb. 17-Apr. 27, 1916] ... Printed for the use of the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry. Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1916. 2 v. illus., fold. diagrs. KF26.A35564 1916

Chatfield & Woods Company, Cincinnati. Rope and twine information, comp. by the Chatfield & Woods co. Cincinnati, O. [c1917] 2 p. l., 3-79 p. illus. TS1785.C5

Crossette, Louis. [from old catalog]. Sisal: production, prices, and marketing. Washington, Govt. print. off. 1924. ii, 7 p. incl. tables. HF105.C285 no. 200

United States. Congress. House. Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce. Crude rubber, Coffee, etc. hearings before the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, House of Representatives, sixty-ninth Congress, first session, on H. Res. 59 ... Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1926. iii, 373 p.; ill. KF27.I55 1926a

Smith, Harold Hamel, ed. Sisal, production and preparation; comparative notes on other fibres; the question of Panama disease, edited and brought up to date by H. Hamel Smith ... London, J. Bale, sons & Danielsson, ltd., 1929. xxvii, 384 p., illus., plates. SB261.S4S5

Commonwealth bureau of soil science, Harpenden, Eng. [from old catalog]. Sisal, bibliography. Harpenden, Herts, Eng., Rothamsted experimental station, 1931? 3 p.l., 2-3, 13 numb. l.

Edwards, Harry Taylor. The introduction of abaca(Ł (Manila hemp) into the western hemisphere. Washington, 1946. p. 327-349. 10 pl. on 5 l. Q11.S66 1945

Hard fibres. A quarterly review. London, Economist Intelligence Unit Ltd., 1951-1973. no. in v.

Lock, George Winslow. Sisal; twenty-five years' sisal research. [London] Longmans; [covered by label: New York, N. Wiley, 1962] 355 p. illus. (The Tropical sicence series) SB261.S4L6

Frazier, Jack. The marijuana farmers; hemp cults and cultures. [1st ed.] New Orleans, Solar Age Press, 1974. 133 p. illus. SB255.F7

Impact of changing technological and economic factors on markets for natural industrial fibres: case studies on jute, kenaf, sisal and abaca. Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, c1989. 74 p.; ill. (FAO economic and social development paper, 77)
HD9156.J7I46 1989

Herer, Jack. Hemp & the marijuana conspiracy: the emperor wears no clothes. by Jack Herer, edited by Chris Conrad. Completely rev., updated, and more fully documented 1990 ed. Van Nuys, CA (5632 Van Nuys Blvd., Van Nuys 91401), Hemp Pub., 1990. 182 p.; ill., maps.
HV5822.M3H47 1990

Hemp times. Vol. 1, no. 1 (July/Aug. 1996)- New York, NY, Hemp Co. of America, c1996- v.; ill. (some col.) TS1700.H46
ISSN 1089-1374 1089-1374

Robinson, Rowan. The great book of hemp: the complete guide to the environmental, commercial, and medicinal uses of the world's most extraordinary plant. Rowan Robinson. Rochester, Vt., Park Street Press, c1996. viii, 247 p.; ill. HV5822.C3R65 1996

Roulac, John. Hemp horizons: the comeback of the world's most promising plant. John Roulac and Hemptech. White River Junction, Vt., Chelsea Green Pub., c1997. xii, 211 p.; ill. (The Real Goods solar living book) SB255.R68 1997

Hopkins, James F. A history of the hemp industry in Kentucky. James F. Hopkins. Lexington, Ky., University Press of Kentucky, [1998] xvi, 244 p.; ill., 1 map. HD9155.U5K45 1998

Journal of industrial hemp. Vol. 7, no. 1 (2002)-v.13, no. 2 (2008). Binghamton, NY, Haworth Press, 2002-2008. 7 v.; ill. SB255.J68
ISSN 1537-7881 1537-7881

Bourrie, Mark. Hemp: a short history of the most misunderstood plant and its uses and abuses. Mark Bourrie. Buffalo, N.Y., Firefly Books (U.S.), 2003. 160 p.; ill. SB255.B68 2003

Deitch, Robert. Hemp: American history revisited: the plant with a divided history. by Robert Deitch. New York, Algora Pub., c2003. viii, 232 p. HV5822.M3D45 2003

If you would like to access titles from the Library of Congress' collections, you will either have to make a visit to this Library in person or request an interlibrary loan from the Library through your local public or university library. The Library of Congress loans to institutions, not individuals. The Library's Interlibrary loan homepage at http://www.loc.gov/rr/loan will provide the information you and your librarian need. If you are planning a visit to the Library of Congress the titles listed above that are within the LC Call number ranges H, S, and T can be requested through book service on the 5th floor Adams. The LC Call number range K can be requested in the Law Library (2nd floor, Madison).

Resources you might find useful:

Hemp and flax in the West: amount grown, modes of culture, preparation for the market by Charles D. Bragdon of Illinois and Flax growing in Seneca, Co., NY by Samuel Williams of Waterloo in A manual of flax culture and manufacture (Rochester, New York, D. D. T. Moore, 1863).

Kentucky hemp: a history of the industry in a Commonwealth of the upper South, 1775-1942 : an address delivered on the occasion of the hemp celebration banquet of the Woodford Chamber of Commerce by Willard Rouse Jillson (Versaillers, KY, 1942). It is only 8 pages long. (not in LC)
All Libraries that Own Item: "Kentucky hemp / a history..."( Record for Item | Get This Item )

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Some older titles may be available from the Hathi Trust (a digital depository including many university libraries and also including some materials from the Library of Congress). See < http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Search/Home?checkspelling=true&lookfor=hemp&type=title&sethtftonly=true&htftonly=true&submit=Find


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